The USAF Model A-lE/G/H/J airplane (figure 1-1) is a single-engine airplane manufactured by the Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc. to permit great versatility as an attack bomber. Four 20-mm guns are installed in the wings and the airplane is fully equipped to carry bombs, rockets, mines, gun pods, and other stores on external wing stations. For long range missions, the airplane can be equipped with external auxiliary fuel tanks. For utility purposes, the airplane's middle compartment can readily be equipped with passenger seats, and auxiliary fuel tanks, facilities for litters, or provisions for hauling heavy cargoes. The cockpit, or forward compartment, has a side-by-side seating arrangement for the airplane's two crew members.

page 1-2 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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The engine is a Wright Cyclone R3350-26WD with a single-stage, two-speed supercharger. The 18-cylinder two-row, air-coo1ed radial engine is rated at 2700 horse power at takeoff. The engine is equipped with a Stromberg PR58U1 carburetor and a spinner injection fuel system. The lubrication system is a dry sump type, in which the oil is supplied under pressure to almost all moving engine parts except the propeller shaft and crankshaft antifriction bearings. Lubrication to each piston and cylinder wall is supplied by jets.


Controls and indicators for operation of the airplane and engine are shown in figures 1-2 through 1-9.

Pilot's Throttle Control Lever.

The pilot's throttle control lever is located on the left-hand console (9, 17, figure 1-3). A throttle stop, adjusted to indicate to the pilot the throttle position for takeoff manifold pressure, is incorporated in the throttle quandrant. The throttle stop is set to give approximately 56 inches Hg manifold pressure. A microphone switch is incorporated in the inboard side of the throttle control lever grip. On the A-lE airplanes and A-lE-5 airplanes Nos. 52-135177, 52-135187, 52-135195, and 52-135211, a two-postion speed brake switch is incorporated in the throttle control lever grip immediately below the microphone switch. The speed brake switch has OPEN (aft) and CLOSE (forward) positions. A handgrip (13,21, figure 1-3) is located forward of the throttle control lever and is rotated up against the side of the cockpit when not in use.

Friction Adjustment Knob.

A friction adjustment knob (28,28, figure 1-3), located on the inboard side of the left hand console, adjusts the friction of the pilot's throttle control lever and the propeller control lever.

Right Seat Throttle Control Lever.
An additional throttle control lever (20, figure 1-5) is installed on the center console of the A-1E airplane for use
when the airplane is flown from the right seat. A two-position microphone switch is incorporated in the end of the throttle control lever grip. The microphone switch is moved forward for radio transmission and aft for intercommunication. The right seat throttle control lever is connected directly to the pilot's throttle control lever and is not provided with a friction lock or throttle stops.

Right Seat Throttle Guard.

A throttle control lever guard (6, figure 4-15) is provided to cover the right seat throttle control lever when not in use and to prevent inadvertent movement of the throttle control levers when the airplane is being flown from the pilot's position. When not in use, the throttle guard is stowed in a container mounted on the bulkhead, aft of the right-hand seat.

Automatic Manifold Pressure Regulator.

An automatic manifold pressure regulator on the engine will restrict maximum manifold pressure to 56 inches Hg, even though the throttle control lever is pushed to the full forward position beyond the throttle stop. The regulator will also maintain a selected manifold pressure under all flight conditions and will reset manifold pressure when changing supercharger speeds.

Supercharger Control Lever.

The supercharger control lever (10, 22, figure 1-3), located on the left-hand console outboard of the throttle control lever has LOW- and HIGH-BLOWER positions.

Mixture Control Lever.

The mixture control lever (31, 29, figure 1-3), located on the left-hand console, has IDLE CUTOFF, NORMAL, and RICH positions. Detents at the RICH and NORMAL positions prevent the mixture control lever from being moved aft toward IDLE CUTOFF without first depressing a spring-loaded button installed in the handle of the lever.

Carburetor Air Selector Switch.

The carburetor air door is electrically operated and is controlled by the CARB AIR selector switch (7, 19, figure 1-3) located on the left-hand console. Switch positions are DIRECT and ALTERNATE, and power for operation of the air door is furnished from the DC secondary bus.

Ignition Switch.

Ignition for the R3350-26WD engine is furnished by a magneto providing dual low-tension ignition through the distributors and the low-tension ignition coils. The ignition switch (22, figure 1-3; 36, figure 1-4) is located forward of and above the left-hand console.

Primer Switch.

An engine priming valve is attached to the aft side of the carburetor. Fuel flows directly from the pressure side of the carburetor into the priming valve; then through three lines to the blower case of the engine. The engine is primed by building up pressure with the fuel boost pump; then pressing the PRIMER switch, (15, figure 1-5; 6, figure 1-9). Power for the primer is supplied from the DC secondary bus.

Starter Switch.

The starting system consists primarily of a direct-cranking electric starter and ignition boosters. The sytem is controlled by a pushbutton switch labeled STARTER (14, figure 1-5; 5, figure 1-9). Pressing the STARTER switch actuates the starter and the ignition boosters. Power for the starter and ignition booster circuits is supplied from the DC secondary bus.


Cowl Flaps Switch.

The cowl flaps are electrically operated and are controlled by a three-position momentary contact switch placarded COWL FLAP (34, 30, figure 1-3) located on the left hand console. The switch has the positions OPEN, OFF, and CLOSE, and is spring loaded to the OFF position. Cowl flaps position is changed by holding the switch in either OPEN or CLOSE. Position is maintained when the switch is released to the OFF position. Power for operation of the cowl flaps is supplied from the DC secondary bus.

Nose Flaps. (Deactivated. Flaps remain open at all times).

Nose flaps are installed to reduce the cooling airflow during cold weather operations. The nose and cowl flaps are actuated by the COWL FLAP switch in a sequence controlled by a limit switch arrangment. The nose flaps open first; and, at the full open position, the cowl flaps open. Closing of the flaps is the reverse of the opening sequence. An indicator, mechanically linked to the nose flaps, extends upward through the antidrag ring to the right of the top centerline when the nose flaps are closed. This indicator may be observed from the cockpit.

Oil Cooler Door Control Switch.

A four-position OIL COOLER DOOR control switch, located on the left-hand console (33, 18, figure 1-3), controls either manual or automatic operation of the electrically operated oil cooler door(s). The switch has the placarded positions AUTO, OPEN, CLOSE, and OFF. When the switch is in the AUTO position, the oil cooler door(s) are operated automatically to maintain the desired oil temperature. For manual operation of the doors, the switch must be held in either the OPEN or CLOSE position. The switch will return to the OFF position when released. Power for operation of the doors is supplied from the DC secondary bus.



The tachometer, located on the pilot's instrument panel (35, 34, figure 1-4), indicates engine RPM. The tachometer is actuated by the tachometer generator mounted on the engine and is independent of the airplane electrical system.


The manifold pressure gage, located on the pilot's instrument panel (3, 4, figure 1-4), is a direct reading gage that indicates the manifold pressure of the engine in inches of mercury. When the engine is not operating, the gage should indicate barometric pressure.


The cylinder head temperature indicator, located on the pilot's instrument panel (14, 21, figure 1-4), is a direct reading indicator that shows the cylinder head temperature in degrees centigrade. The indicator operates from a thermocouple installed on No. 10 cylinder and is independent of the airplane electrical system.


The torquemeter, located on the pilot's instrument panel (6, 6,figure 1-4), provides a reading of propeller shaft torque oil pressure calibrated in pounds per square inch. The instrument is calibrated from 50 to 350 psi around the perimeter of the dial, with the small dial at top center indicating from 1 to 10 psi. Torque pressure indications are directly proportional to BMEP. The torquemeter is used effectively to check engine operation at all power settings and for manual leaning during cruise. (Refer to Cruise, Manual Leaning procedure, and Use of Torquemeter in Section VII, and to Engine Power Schedule in Part 2 of the Appendix.) The torquemeter is an electrically operated instrument that receives indications from the pressure transmitter at the engine. Power for the torquemeter indicating system is supplied from inverter No. 2.


The engine gage unit, located on the pilot's instrument panel (36. 20, figure 1-4), is a multipurpose instrument that indicates oil temperature, oil pressure, and fuel pressule. Both the oil and fuel pressure indicators are direct reading instruments. The oil temperature indicator operates from a temperature sensing bulb installed in the engine oil pressure inlet line. Power for the oil temperature indicator is supplied from the DC primary bus.


The air temperature indicator, located on the pilot's instrument panel (16, 24, figure 1-4), is a dual-purpose instrument. The indicator normally shows carburetor air temperature. Outside air temperature readings are obtained on the same instrument by depressing the air temperature selector switch (18, 22, figure 1-4). Power for the instru ment is supplied from the primary DC bus.


The airplane is equipped with a hydraulically actuated, variable pitch, constant-speed propeller, 13 feet 6 inches in diameter.


The propeller control lever is located on the left-hand console (12, 27, figure 1-3) and has the placarded positions INCREASE and DECREASE. With the control lever in the full INCREASE position, maximum RPM for takeoff should be 2800 (+ 25) RPM.


The oil tank is located forward of the firewall and has a service capacity of 38.5 gallons (270 pounds). See figure 1-21 for oil grade and specification. The oil system is automatic in operation, and temperature control is provided by electrically operated oil cooler door(s). Oil dilution controls are provided. The oil temperature and oil pressure are indicated on the engine gage unit (36,20,figure 1-4).


Oil dilution is controlled by a combination switch placarded PITOT HEAT - OIL DILUTE (16, figure 1-5; 7, figure 1-9). The switch is spring loaded to the center position from the OIL DILUTE position and will return to center when released. Placing the switch in the OIL DILUTE position turns on the fuel boost pump to supply fuel under pressure to the oil dilution system, shifts the oil tank diverter valve to the warmup compartment, and opens the oil dilution solenoid valve. Power to the oil dilution system is supplied from the DC secondary bus.


An oil sump magnetic plug warning light, located on the pilot's instrument panel (20, 11, figure 1-4), is installed to warn the pilot of accumulation of metal particles in the engine oil system which may be an indication of internal damage to the engine. The light will come on when a sufficient amount of metal particles have collected on the sump plug to close the circuit across the terminals of the plug. Electrical power for the light is supplied from the DC primary bus and is a push-to-test light.

page 1-2 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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Position airplane into wind before engine runup. Check that tailwheel is locked and centered.

Engine runup should not be conducted with flaps down because of possible damage to flaps.


1. Brakes-HOLD/SET

2. DC power supply-Checked

a. Increase engine speed gradually to approximately 1500 RPM. DC voltmeter should read approxirnately 27 volts. If GEN WARN light goes off, reverse-current relay is functioning properly. Push in warning light to test.

b. Increase engine speed and check DC voltmeter. Voltmeter reading should increase until reading reaches approximately 28 volts and should remain at this reading regardless of any further increase in engine speed.

3 . AC power selector switch INT.

4. AC power supply-Checked (at 1600 RPM)

a. Place AC VOLTMETER phase selector switch in each of the 400- to 800-cycle phases. Voltmeter should indicate 115 + 6 volts.

b. With FLT INSTR PWR SEL switch in No. 1 INVERTER position, place AC VOLTMETER phase selector switch in each of the 400-cycle phases. Voltmeter should indicate 115 +6 volts.

c. Place FLT INSTR PWR SEL switch in No. 2 INVERTER and AUTOPILOT position and repeat check of 400-cycle phases. Voltmeter should indicate 115 +6 volts.

d. Inverter warning and selection-Check (at 1600 RPM). With FLT INSTR PWR SEL switch in No. 2 INVERTER and AUTOPILOT position, perform the following check:

(1) Place battery-generator switch in BAT ONLY position. FLT INSTR PWR FAILURE warning light should come on.

(2) Place FLT INSTR PWR SEL to No. 1 INVERTER position. FLT INSTR PWR FAILURE warning light should go off.

No. 2 inverter cuts out at an engine speed below approximately 1200 RPM; therefore, the gyros may not come up to a safe operating speed during taxi operations. Do not take off with FLT INSTR SEL switch in No. 2 INVERTER and AUTOPILOT position except in an emergency.

(3) Battery generator sw-Return to BAT and Gen.

(4) Place AC VOLTMETER phase selector switch in the "B" phase position for monitoring during flight.

5. AC-DC power supply-Checked.

a. Select inverter 1- Increase engine speed gradually to approximately 1200 RPM. GEN WARN light should go off, flight instrument warning light should be off.

b. Select inverter 2 for same indication as inverter 1.

c. Reduce throttle, DC GEN and flight instrument warning light should come on.

d. Place FLT INSTR PWR SEL to INVERTER I position. FLT INSTR PWR FAILURE warning light should go off.

e. Increase throttle, DC GEN warning light goes off.

No. 2 inverter cuts out an engine speed below approximately 1200 RPM; therefore, the gyros may not come up to a safe operating speed during taxi operations. Do not take off with FLT INSTR PWR SEL switch in INVERTER 2.


6. Engine instruments-Checked

With engine operating at 1500 to 1800 rpm, instruments should indicate as follows:

a. Oil pressure-80 to 90 psi.

If pressure is below 80 psi or above 90 psi corrective maintenance action must be taken before flight. Minimum oil pressure at idle RPM is 15 psi.

b. Fuel pressure-19 to 21 psi with fuel boost pump

With the fuel boost pump on, fuel pressure should increase from 1/2 to 3 1/2 psi but not exceed 24.5 psi.


7. Propeller lever Checked

a. Set engine at 1600 RPM-Propeller full INCREASE.

b. Note RPM reaction as propeller control lever is placed in full DECREASE position. Propeller should govern engine speeds down to 1100 to 1400 RPM. Surging within these speeds is normal.

c. Return propeller control lever to full INCREASE position.

d. Check for full recovery of RPM.

8. Supercharger control lever-Checked as required.

(If use of HIGH BLOWER is anticipated.)

a. Set engine at 1600 RPM with throttle lever and note manifold pressure.

b. Move supercharger lever to HIGH BLOWER detent.

c. Open throttle lever to obtain field barometric pressure

Make certain stick is held back to prevent airplane from nosing over.


d. Move supercharger lever to LOW blower detent. Sudden increase in RPM indicates that two-speed mechanism is working properly.

Do not repeat supercharger shift check at less than 5-minute intervals.


e. Reset engine speed at 1600 RPM and check manifold pressure obtained at beginning of check. Readings should be same.

The R-3350-26WD engine is equipped with a roller and stationary oil-operated disc-type clutch that does not need to be desludged.

9. Ignition and power-Check.

a. Advance throttle lever to obtain manifold pressure setting equal to field barometric pressure. The RPM should be 2290±50 RPM.

To prevent the airplane from nosing over, do not use manifold pressure setting that exceeds field barometric pressure unless tail of airplane is adequately tied down.

b. Place ignition in LEFT position for minimum of 5 seconds to allow RPM to stabilize. A drop of 75 RPM or less is considered satisfactory when operating on one magneto if no engine roughness is encountered.

When RPM drop exceeds 150 and/or excessive roughness is encountered, retard throttle to idle before returning ignition switch to BOTH.

Thirty seconds is the maximum time that the ignition switch should remain in any position other than BOTH.


c. Return ignition switch to BOTH and allow engine speed to stabilize.

The use of torque pressure, as a measure of power loss during the ignition check, is recommended to substantiate the RPM variation noted. A drop of 4 to 5-psi torque pressure is considered equivalent to a 75-RPM drop. If excessive RPM or torque drop is encountered, perform spark plug burnout procedures as outlined in Section Vll.


d. Repeat procedure for ignition switch RIGHT

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Release brakes and advance throttle smoothly to full power, do not exceed predicted TOP or allowable MAP. As the aircraft accelerates, the pilot should be in no hurry to raise the tail. During the initial roll, pilot should concentrate on heading control. The rudder becomes effective at an airspeed of 15 to 20 knots. It may therefore be necessary, especially in a calm or light wind condition, to apply a small amount of braking action to help maintain directional control until the air speed at which the rudder becomes effective is reached. The tailwheel should be held on the runway for the first part of the roll, as this will help maintain directional control and minimize the need for braking. After the rudder becomes effective, back stick pressure is relaxed and enough forward pressure is applied to raise the tailwheel off the runway to position the airplane in a slightly flatter than takeoff attitude. To maintain a straight takeoff roll, it is necessary to change rudder pressure as the airspeed increases. At takeoff speed, rudder pressure should be almost neutral. The flatter attitude is held until takeoff airspeed is approached at which time the airplane is rotated slightly and allowed to lift from the runway. No attempt should be made to pull it off. Typical takeoff speeds with wing flaps up and a gross weight of 18,500 pounds are 95 to 100 KIAS. With 25-degree wing flap setting and a gross weight of 25,000 pounds, takeoff speed is 110 KIAS. The landing gear should retract in a maximum time of 9 seconds. The throttle lever should not be retarded until the wheels are retracted and the airplane has attained sufficient altitude and airspeed to permit safe control in the event of sudden engine failure.

page 2-14 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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1. Gear - up

Retract landing gear when airplane is safely airborne.

2. Flaps - up

The wing flaps, if used, will begin to blow back at airspeeds above 110 KIAS; however, the wing flap control lever should be placed in the UP position before 130 KIAS is reached. This blowback feature allows the wing flaps to be retracted after takeoff with little or no settling of the airplane and with a minimum change in trim.

3. Power adjusted

Although the best power setting for climb is 2600 RPM and 47.5 inches of manifold pressure, this power setting must be reduced as altitude is increased to prevent exceeding the engine operating limits. A power setting of 2600 RPM and 46.5 inches of manifold pressure will allow the climb to be maintained to the full throttle altitude without reducing power and without exceeding the limiting BMEP. Refer to Appendix I for additional data on climb speeds and power settings.

4. Cowl flaps - As required

Generally, the cowl flaps must be closed after takeoff to prevent the engine from running at cooler than desired temperatures. However, adjust cowl flaps as necessary to maintain cylinder head temperature below 245°C when climbing at METO power. When operating at military power, do not exceed 260°C. A material reduction in cylinder head and oil temperature can be obtained by climbing at an IAS from 15 to 20 knots faster than best climbing speed. A tendency for oil to overheat can be checked quicker by reducing engine speed than by throttling alone.


6. Fuel boost pump switch - OFF (1000 ft above ground)

Fuel boost pump should be turned off after climb out is established. Refer to Section Vll for additional information on fuel system management and use of auxiliary tanks. It may be necessary to use the fuel boost pump at higher altitudes when the engine pump alone does not maintain sufficient pressure (19 psi minimum).

7. Centerline store lock handle - As desired

8. External fuel-Selected as required (3000 ft above ground)

External fuel should not be used below 3000 feet above the ground, except in an emergency. If it becomes necessary to use external fuel below this altitude, the pilot should closely monitor engine instruments to avoid fuel starvation caused by external fuel tank depletion. If fuel starvation occurs below 3000 feet above the ground, there may be insufficient altitude for an airstart.

9. Oxygen - As desired

pp. 2-14, 2-15 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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A windshield degreasing system is provided to direct a pressurized flow of liquid to the windshield to free grease or oil accumulation. The system can also be used for anti-icing, or mud and dirt elimination when charged with the proper agent (figure 1-21). Choice of an operating agent would be directed by expected conditions: If icing were anticipated, an anti-icing agent would be used; if an oil or grease accumulation, a degreasing agent; for a mud or dirt condition, plain water. For normal operation, only a few seconds of operation are required.

DEGREASING CONTROLS.Two pushbutton switches control the degreasing operating. One switch (5, figure 1-4), located on the pilot's instrument panel, is used by the pilot to degrease the left side of the windshield. The other switch (17, figure 1-5), located on the center console, is for the use of the crewmember to degrease the right side of the windshield. Through a standpipe arrangement, the crew member has access to only one-half the supply of fluid while the pilot may use the entire supply. 15 to 20 seconds may be required for degreaser fluid to reach the windshield.

The forward canopy should be closed before degreasing the windshield, as fluid enters the cockpit area with canopy open. Yawing the airplane will assist the degreasing operation.

DEGREASING CONTROLS. One pushbutton switch controls the degreasing operation One switch (15, figure 14), located on the pilot's instrument panel, is used by the pilot to degrease the windshield and has a capacity of 1 pint which is sufficient for approximately 30 seconds of continuous operation.

The canopy should be closed before degreasing the windshield, as fluid enters the cockpit area with canopy open. Yawing the airplane will assist the degreasing operation.

page 4-44 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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An electrically driven windshield wiper is provided on the pilot's side of the bulletproof windshield. Electrical power is provided by the secondary bus and wiper speeds are controlled by a rotary switch located on the left-hand console (40, figure 1-3). The rotary switch, placarded WINDSHIELD WIPER, has five selective positions (FAST MED-SLOW-OFF-PARK). All positions except PARK are self explanatory. When the windshield wiper rotary switch is positioned to PARK, the windshield wiper blade will rotate to the left-hand side of the windshield and stop. When the rotary switch is positioned to OFF, the wind shield wiper blade will stop in the vertical position on the windshield. When not in use, the windshield wiper rotary switch should normally be positioned to OFF.

page 4-45 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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The gun control switches, located on the armament panel (2,2, figure 4-7) are used to charge the guns. The switch labeled OUTBD, controls the two outboard guns, and the switch labeled INBD controls the two inboard guns. The indicated positions are READY, OFF, and SAFE. The guns are charged in pairs by placing the gun switches in the SAFE position and can be fired simultaneously or in pairs, as desired. Two automatic safety features are incorporated in the gun circuits.

(1) When the landing gear is extended, the armament bus is deenergized (refer to MASTER ARMAMENT SWITCH in this section) to safe the gun firing and sight circuits.

(2) A safety circuit will override the gun switches and cause the breech blocks to retract when the tail hook is lowered.

Do not cycle the gun charger in case of a jam. Movement of the gun control switch from READY to SAFE and back to READY can cause an explosion by jamming a new round The master armament switch should be used to interrupt the trigger circuit between rounds. Place the gun control switch in the SAFE position after the final run.

The left hand switch controls the inboard guns and the right hand switch controls the outboard guns.

The left hand switch controls the outboard guns and the right hand switch controls the inboard guns.



The GUN PODS CHARGE switch on the armament panel (12, figure 4-6) has two positions, RELEASE and CHARGE. When gun pods are suspended from the inboard stations, this switch is momentarily moved to CHARGE to charge the guns after the INNER STATIONS function switch (7, figure 4-6) is moved to the GUN PODS position and the INNER STATIONS LEFT and RIGHT switches are placed in the upper position. Gun pods will fire when the inner stations release switch (B button) on the control stick grip is depressed.

page 4-33 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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See figure 2-4.


The landing starts with the approach and usually a good approach contributes to a good landing. The most critical factor in a successful approach and landing is airspeed. Maintain approach speed at least 20 percent above the predetermined power-off stalling speed (refer to Section VI, Stalls). Control at this speed will be excellent. In a properly executed approach, the airplane should arrive over the end of the runway at an altitude of approximately 50 feet and an airspeed of 95 to 105 knots. At this position, the power is gradually reduced and a transition to the three-point attitude is commenced. After touchdown the throttle is closed and back-stick is applied gradually and smoothly as the airplane slows until full back stick has been applied.

Do not snap the stick back on touchdown as the airplane may become airborne again, in an excessively nose-high attitude and at a very low airspeed. The reduced airspeed could lead to a very rapid rate of descent, and the airplane would probably contact the runway in a manner to cause a bounce. When this occurs, do not over control the airplane as a porpoise will probably result. The proper recovery technique for a bounce or porpoise is to neutralize the stick and allow the airplane to settle back to the runway. It may also be necessary to add power to cushion the landing.

Approach airspeed should be increased 5 knots for turbulent air and gusty wind conditions.

Approach airspeed should be increased 10 to 15 knots for turbulent air or gusty wind conditions.



Any approach and landing made in a heavily loaded airplane must be made at a proportionately higher airspeed. For example, the power-off stalling speed of the airplane at 21,000 pounds gross weight, and with wheels and flaps down, is approximately 89 KIAS.


In crosswind landing approaches, runway lineup should be maintained by placing a wing down into the wind and applying top rudder to maintain runway heading. With crosswinds in excess of 10 knots, it may be desirable to use the wing-down technique in conjunction with a heading offset (crab) into the wind. When the crabbing technique is used, adjust heading for runway lineup immediately prior to touchdown. Wing flaps should be retracted after touch down and into-the-wind aileron should be applied to counteract wing rise. A full flap landing should not be made with a 90-degree crosswind component in excess of 10 knots.

If brakes are necessary to maintain directional control, use brakes cautiously until all wheels are on the ground.


Use full flaps, with the propeller at 2600 RPM, and the throttle as required to establish a flat power-on approach. See figure 2-4 for minimum run approach airspeeds. Come in over end of runway at approximately 10 feet, close throttle and make a normal flared-out landing. Use brakes as necessary. Leave wing flaps down until end of rollout to ensure maximum drag.

page 2-16 through 2-18 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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The following procedure is for an erect spin recovery:





Recovery procedure as outlined above considered
optimum. Refer to section Vl for detailed information.

Hold anti-spin controls until spin stops. Smoothly return the airplane to level flight. Use caution against an abrupt recovery to avoid entering a secondary spin.

If spinning inverted, the same procedures apply, except place the stick slightly aft of neutral.

page 3-10 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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The airplane has excellent positive stability characteristics over the entire normal operating speed for any power condition or external configuration. Because of this inherent positive stability, the airplane will maintain a given trim speed without appreciable effort by the pilot, making for ease of flight. The marked stability of the airplane, however, brings the disadvantage of little or no warning of an impending stall. Another inherent disadvantage is that elevator control forces become heavy at high diving speeds. Adequate speed control, with use of the speed brake (if installed), will prevent this force buildup from becoming excessive. The following section discusses more thoroughly the flight characteristics exhibited by the airplane in all phases of operation.


Since engine torque effects are always present on single propeller airplanes, lateral and directional trim settings must be changed when any appreciable change in speed is desired. This is particularly true at low airspeeds and high engine powers. Aileron and rudder tabs are capable of reducing control forces to zero for all stabilized flight conditions .


Control is good during slow flight including all normal approach and landing speeds. However, use of more than METO power to initiate go-around can cause torque forces that are difficult to control at speeds close to stall. If the approach airspeed drops below normal, careful handling of power is essential to regain safe flying speed or to complete a landing. The tendency for the airplane to stall with only a slight warning and with a roll to the left dictates that a go-around must not be accompanied by a climb that would cause a dangerous sacrifice in airspeed.

During an approach and landing, the aerodynamic warning of an impending stall may not occur until an airspeed dangerously close to the actual stalling speed of the airplane is reached. A sudden reduction of power, when in this condition, will cause a severe landing impact. An abrupt application of power, on the other hand, will result in an uncontrollable torque roll. Furthermore, the increase in the stalling speed as the angle of bank is increased must be thoroughly understood, as the danger of torque roll, obviously, is further aggravated as the angle of bank is increased. (See figure 6-1.)

Do not use full INCREASE RPM during an approach and landing.

page 6-1 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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With power off, the warning of an impending stall is light, characterized by a slight "nibbling" of the ailerons. The stall is followed by a characteristic nose down pitch followed by a mild roll to the left. A normal recovery is easily accomplished by moving the stick forward; however, a loss of altitude of approximately 400 to 500 feet can be expected before level flight is resumed.


Warning of stalls in the power-approach configuration is nonexistent. Although stalls in this configuration are not severe, the roll to the left is somewhat more pronounced in comparison with the power-off stall. This is particularly true during a turn to the left, when the stall may be accompanied by a definite tendency to spin to the left. Control is good up to the stall, and recovery can be accomplished with a loss of approximately 300 feet, except when the stall occurs during a turn to the left. Recovery in this latter situation will require considerably more altitude.


In cruise configuration, stalls during accelerated turns to the left are characterized by an over-the-top roll to the right. Stalls during accelerated turns to the right cause the airplane to pitch down and to the right toward an inverted position. Stall warning is in the form of a mild airframe buffet.

Accelerated stalls differ from power-on stalls primarily in that the stall roll is more rapid and abrupt. Recovery is immediate when g loads are reduced by moving the stick forward.

Aileron must not be used to oppose the post-stall-rolls. Aileron opposing the stall roll is a strong spin influence and will hasten spin development. Opposite rudder may be used freely to oppose post-stall rolls. Aileron may be used after stall recovery, application of elevator control, and termination of buffeting.

Flight tests indicate that any warning of an impending stall is at best extremely light and, in many cases, nonexistent. This characteristic dictates that the pilot must become thoroughly familiar with the stalling characteristics of the airplane so that stalls are not inadvertently caused during any critical portion of a flight. A knowledge of the exact stalling speed of the airplane, for any configuration, and angle of bank, is mandatory for the accomplishment of safe flight. See figure 6-1 for a table of stalling speeds far various configurations and weights.

These airspeeds are as accurate as can be expected; however, configuration, instrument error, and peculiarities of each individual airplane may make the actual indicated stalling airspeed different. To determine the correct indicated value for each airplane, it is necessary to investigate the stall speeds in flight for the desired airplane configuration. This can be done after ascertaining the gross weight for the particular loading condition from the Weight and Balance Handbook and the indicated weight of fuel at the time of the stall.


To obtain a reliable stall speed, airspeed should be reduced at a rate of not more than 5 knots per 10 seconds, at an altitude not greater than 8000 feet, with the airplane in the power-off configuration (landing gear down, flaps full down, canopy open, and throttle closed). The throttle setting for the power approach stall can be obtained by stabilizing the indicated airspeed in level flight at 10 to 15 percent above the landing configuration stall speed. Once this power setting has been established, the power-on indicated stall speed may be obtained in a manner similar to that described above for the power-off stall speed.

page 6-2 to 6-5 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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The A-l aircraft have been tested in erect spins up to 22 turns with typical symmetrical stores loadings. Spins are controllable when no outboard wing stores are carried, and when inboard wing stores do not exceed 300 pounds each. Centerline stores and empty wing fuel tanks do not produce any objectionable adverse effects, although spins become fully developed slightly more rapidly with empty wing tanks installed. Spins in either direction with these loadings have large oscillations in pitch, mild oscillations in yaw, and roll for 2-1/2 to 5 turns, then become fully developed and extremely steady. Pitch attitude is flat in left spins (15 to 30 degrees nose down) and steeper in right spins (30 to 60 degrees nose down). Yaw rate is rapid, stabilizing in the second or third turn at about 120 degrees per second. Altitude loss is a maximum of 800 feet per turn. Spin characteristics are not significantly altered by changes in power, elevator trim, speed brake position or gear and flap position. Left spins will not proceed beyond 1/2 turn with full flaps unless forced with full left rudder.


Optimum recovery techniques vary with external stores and the degree of spin development and can be summarized as follows:

a. In spins of less than 2 turns apply:

Full Rudder (Away from the Spin Direction and Away from the Turn Needle).

Aileron Neutral

Stick Forward at Arm's Length until recovery is apparent-then Neutral.

Recovery will be complete after I to 1-1/2 additional turns and will produce a near vertical dive before rotation stops. Forward stick must be relaxed during spin recovery as the nose attitude steepens to prevent negative g's.

b. In spins of 2 or more turns:

Manually jettison all outboard wing stores and inboard wing stores in excess of 300 pounds each. Forcefully apply FULL RUDDER away from the spin direction (Away from the Turn Needle).

Aileron - Full toward the Spin direction (Toward the Turn Needle)

Stick Forward at Arm's Length.

Recovery will be complete in 2 to 4 additional turns. In the final turn of recovery yaw rate decreases. Roll rate increases abruptly then stops suddenly when recovery is complete.

Control forces in spin recovery are high particularly during initial control application. Peak forces encountered are as follows:

Elevator-50 to 100 pounds.

Rudder-300 to 400 pounds.

Aileron-40 pounds (with aileron boost on).

Use the same recovery techniques for flat spins.

c. Additional optimum recovery techniques:

Aileron must be held neutral in spin recoveries until outboard wing stores are jettisoned. Certain wing store loadings cause the direction of optimum aileron deflection for spin recovery to reverse-from INTO THE SPIN to AWAY FROM THE SPIN. Recoveries using aileron AWAY FROM THE SPIN should not be attempted in lieu of jettisoning stores because recovery from left spins with most wing loadings and right spins with some wing loadings is impossible after the second turn unless stores are jettisoned.

When carrying certain loadings of nonjettisonable wing stores such as High Velocity Aircraft Rockets (HVAR's), recovery from fully developed spins may be impossible. The pilot should make a particular effort to avoid spin entry when nonjettisonable stores are being carried. If spins are entered, recovery will be successful if properly initiated during the first or second turn. If recovery is not achieved or impending after 2 turns with recovery controls applied, and stores cannot be expended by any means, the aircraft should be abandoned.

In fully developed, steady spins with no outboard wing stores there is no aircraft response for 1 to 1-1/2 turns after optirnum recovery controls are applied. After this delay, recovery commences abruptly and occurs rapidly in 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 additional turns. Pilots must be aware of this DELAY and must consciously avoid the natural tendency to make random and erroneous changes in control positions in attempts to hasten spin recovery. The Turn Needle is the most reliable sources of spin direction information and must be used in lieu of external visual reference in selecting recovery control positions. The Turn Needle will be fully deflected in the direction of spin rotation. DO NOT REFERENCE THE BALL.

Wing stores should not be jettisoned prior to the end of the second turn. Aircraft gyrations in the first 2 turns may cause collision with the free-falling stores if they are jettisoned prematurely, and properly executed recoveries are always successful if initiated in the flrst or second turn.

It is not necessary or desirable to expend time or attention jettisoning centerline stores, empty wing fuel tanks, and retracting landing gear or flaps for spin recovery. Power reduction is not essential but is recommended to reduce the possibility of propeller damage.

There is no tendency to enter inverted spins from positive g stalls in erect or inverted flight. Negative g is not encountered in erect spins unless forward stick is maintained for too long a duration in recovery.

page 6-5 to 6-6 (T.O. 1A-1E-1)

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Escape from the airplane has been successfully accomplished with and without the extraction system. If sufficient time and altitude is available, the crew members should extract in preference to ditching. A forced landing may be preferable to extraction if a suitable field is available.

The procedure is the same for both seats. No provisions are made for extraction from the middle compartment; however, bailout from the middle compartment can be readily accomplished.

Under level flight conditions, the airplane should be abandoned at least 2,000 feet above the terrain whenever possible. Under spin or dive conditions, extract at least 3,000 feet above the terrain, whenever possible.

 Do not delay extraction below 2,000 feet AGL if futile attempts to start the engine or for other reasons that may commit you to an unsafe condition. Accident statistics emphatically show a progressive decrease in successful ejections/extractions as altitude decrease below 2,000 feet AGL.

During low level extraction the chances for a successful escape can be greatly increased by zooming the airplane (if speed permits) to exchange airspeed for altitude. Extraction should be accomplished while the airplane is in a positive climb. This will result in a more nearly vertical trajectory. The emergency minimum extraction conditions are zero airspeed and altitude.

 At low airspeed and altitudes no safety factor is provided for equipment malfunction. Since survival from an extremely low altitude depends primarily on the airplane attitude and altitude, the decision to extract must be left to the pilot. Factors such as G-loads, high sink rate, and airplane attitudes other than level or slightly nose high will decrease chances for survival. Sink rate proportionally cancels out upward movement of the extraction system with respect to the ground. The emergency minimum extraction conditions are given only to show that escape under these conditions is possible. It must not be used as a basis for delaying extraction below 2,000 feet.


T.O. 1A-1E-1 page 3-12.

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If the airplane is to be abandoned in flight, it should be slowed down to an airspeed of 120 KIAS or less and wing flaps lowered if practicable. If applicable instructions must be passed to the crew and passengers over the interphone system or by prearranged signals.


1. Passengers and Crew -- Alerted

Notify passengers and crew of emergency and intended action.

2 . Radio Call,Complete

Notify ground station of nature of emergency, position, and intended action.

If time permits, accomplish the following.

3. Jettison ordnance in safe, unpopulated area.

4. Direct airplane toward unpopulated area.

5. Throttle -- CLOSE

T.O. 1A-1E-1 Page 3-12

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In a situation that necessitates abandoning the airplane, the pilot will take the following action:


(Grasp with both hands, palms up, elbows in).

  • The safest position for the canopy during extraction is fully closed. If the canopy jettison system fails and the canopy is in any position other than fully closed, extraction may be unsuccessful.
  • Keep feet on rudder pedals, sit erect with head back.
  • In dual manned aircraft, temporary blind ness will occur at night resulting from the flash of the first extraction.
  • After clearing the cockpit -D Ring - PULL (This is a precautionary measure)

3. Survival kit release handle -- PULL (During parachute descent).

 Do not delay extraction below 2,000 feet AGL if futile attempts to start the engine or for other reasons that may commit you to an unsafe condition. Accident statistics emphatically show a progressive decrease in successful ejections/extractions as altitude decrease below 2,000 feet AGL.

During low level extraction the chances for a successful escape can be greatly increased by zooming the airplane (if speed permits) to exchange airspeed for altitude. Extraction should be accomplished while the airplane is in a positive climb. This will result in a more nearly vertical trajectory. The emergency minimum extraction conditions are zero airspeed and altitude.

 If the survival kit is not deployed, the crewmember will likely incur a broken leg or ankle during the parachute ground landing. The survival kit may be extremely difficult to deploy after landing in the water. Early release can cause oscillation and reduce pilot protection when landing in wooded areas.


T.O. 1A-1E-1 page 3-13.

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In a situation that necessitates abandoning the airplane and time permits, the pilot will EMERGENCY JETTISON the canopy and take the following action:

1. EXTRACTION HANDLE -- PULL. (Grasp with both hands, palms up, elbows in).

If the canopy fails to jettison after the Extraction Handle is pulled, manual bailout is the only means of escape from the aircraft.

2. Pararaft -- DEPLOY.

T.O. 1A-1E-1 page 3-13.

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lf it becomes necessary to abandon the airplane with passengers the following procedures will be used:

1. Notify passengers

2. Airspeed - Slow to 120 KIAS

3. Flaps - Down (If time permits)

4. Order passengers to disconnect personal leads, seat belt and jettison aft canopy and abandon airplane.

  • It is imperative, if passengers are occupying the middle compartment, that the aft canopy be jettisoned before the forward canopy.
  • Failure to observe this precaution will cause an
    extreme pressure drop within the airplane. At speeds greater than 250 KIAS, the result may be structural failure to the aft fuselage section and collapse of the aft canopy with an inward burst of shattered plexiglass. At speeds below 250 KIAS, the reduced pressure may dangerously hinder an attempt to jettison the aft canopy.
  • When abandoning the airplane from the middle compartment, care must be taken to keep the body as low to the compartment rail as possible during bailout. Upon gaining the proper position for bailout, give a vigorous coordinated push with the feet and pull-push with the hands and arms while diving for the wing. This is necessary to ensure a clear breakaway from the fuselage, wing, and horizontal stabilizer. The body should be doubled up with the legs and arms well tucked in upon leaving the airplane. Bailout should be accomplished from a point as far forward as possible. This will provide the individual with some protection from the slip
    stream, during the initi~l roll over the rail, and will aid in clearing the horizontal stabilizer.
  • Whenever possible, bailout should be made from the right side of the airplane.

T.O.1A-1E-1; page 3-16

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If the Yankee Escape System fails, the following procedure should be used to abandon the airplane: (See figures 3-4 and 3-5.)

1. Follow Emergency Ground Egress Procedure

Place inboard hand on top of windshield, outboard hand on top of cockpit side rail, and turn body outboard. Taking care to keep head and body well inside the airplane, place both feet in the seat pan. Tuck chin against chest and begin a forward roll. Coordinate a vigorous push with both feet and a pull-push with hands and arms and drive for the wing root. Pull knees up toward chin, grasp knees with hands, and keep arms against side.

When clear of airplane:

2 . D-Ring -- PULL


When possible, bailout should be made from the right side of airplane.

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